Man on trial for the gruesome murders of his three best friends reveals the circumstances leading to their deaths. A man walking in the city at night turns into a dog, while the man's dog transforms into a woman.
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Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. I wish she had quoted it, if she had any. If she has none, her conviction is as good as mine. In the end, the alleged difference between psychoanalysis and CB therapy not in theory, of course, but in practice is a matter of emphasis and personal conviction, not of evidence. On the contrary, the evidence she offers with the case of Mr A is good grist for the psychotherapy integration's mill. I want to thank her for her precious contribution, though I understand it is not what she meant. Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy: a revision.
Jones, E. Comparing the process in psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural therapies.
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Milton, J. Psychoanalysis and cognitive behaviour therapy-rival paradigms or common ground? Ryle, A. Psychoanalysis, cognitive-analytic therapy, mind and self. British J. Wachtel P. Psychoanalysis and Behavior Therapy. Washington, D. Colgo l'occasione per augurarvi buone vacanze. Paolo Migone Psychoanalysis and cognitive-behaviour therapy International Journal of Psychoanalysis , , 85, 5: Most important, by comparing psychoanalysis to a different approach, it addresses a vital issue for our field: the identity of psychoanalysis, especially significant today when rapid changes and, at times, paradigm shifts make the border between one technique and another more and more obscure.
Furthermore, as is well known, psychoanalysis as an unified body of theory and practice does not exist, if it ever existed, and we see the flourishing of many "psychoanalyses" to the point that at times the difference between a psychoanalytic and a non-psychoanalytic approach is no greater than the difference between two approaches that are considered under the common psychoanalytic umbrella. And, as Milton correctly points out, the picture is complicated by economical and social pressures. At any rate, in defining which type of psychoanalysis we practice and how we theorise it, a good exercise is to see not only what it is, but also what it is not in a sort of "negative dialectics" , i.
Many of Milton's points I agree with, and I want to mention some of them.
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For example, the current enthusiasm around cognitive-behaviour therapy reminds us of the "early idealisation of psychoanalysis, and may prove relatively short-lived" p. As a matter of fact, many cognitive-behaviour therapists, who traditionally worked with mono-symptomatic or "neurotic" patients, now seem to show more prudent attitudes when they are challenged by the treatment of personality disorders: here some of them necessarily rediscover the usefulness of concepts such as transference, countertransference, resistance, even of the need of long-term treatments and of a personal therapy for the trainees pp.
The author correctly notices that this "psychoanalytic drift" in recent cognitive therapy reminds us of the "cognitive drift" we saw in behaviour therapy p. Indeed, some cognitive therapists today seem more and more "psychoanalytic" such as Liotti, aptly mentioned by Milton [p.
Another observation by Milton is that there seems to be, however, a difference in philosophical underpinnings: in cognitive therapy the patient is often seen as a victim of parental or societal influences, while in psychoanalysis the patient, more pessimistically, is seen as intrinsically conflicted and unreasonable p. But--we may argue--here we do not need to resort to cognitive therapy in order to emphasise what is nothing but the dichotomy between conflict and deficit theories, which is already well represented in the psychoanalytic literature think only of Kohut's Self Psychology, interpersonal psychoanalysis, and so forth.
Another important point is that "cognitive" work can be a defence from affect, and this "defensive" aspect of cognitive therapy could be one of the reasons for its success in patients and therapists alike, because it is more "reassuring". Again, this is already part of our discussion on the theory of technique. In this regard, Milton rightly says that the "collapse" of the two approaches in which, so to speak, the analyst becomes "cognitive" is neither good nor bad in itself, because there might be good "clinical reasons" for it with particular patients p.
Despite our good "analytic intentions", as Freud himself was well aware of, we represent for the patient also a model for identification, we play the role of teacher, re-educator, and the like Friedman, In other words, Milton seems to say that the independent variable should be the patient's need at any specific moment and depends on his or her defensive structure, an approach I fully agree with but which constitutes nothing but one of the technical implications of Ego Psychology, which has been known for at least half a century.
According to this perspective, then, cognitive-behaviour therapy and psychoanalysis could be seen on a continuum similar to the continuum between supportive and expressive techniques , where cognitive-behaviour therapy--like supportive psychotherapy--is reassuring, structured, reinforcing defences according to the patient's need in a specific moment, while psychoanalysis is more destructuring, open to the discovery of unconscious meanings, and so on.
But we may ask: is this the correct way of seeing the difference between cognitive-behaviour therapy and psychoanalysis? If we see things in this way, aren't we loosing something specific of psychoanalysis, and if yes, what? In her attempt at differentiating psychoanalysis from cognitive-behaviour therapy, Milton believes that something "psychoanalytic" is always missing in cognitive-behaviour therapy, even in its more modern and "cognitive analytic" version such as Ryle's  "cognitive analytic therapy" DEFAULT.
I would like to comment briefly on this point because, although I basically agree with Milton, I would see things in a somewhat different way. The solution Milton finds in order to see a specificity in the psychoanalytic approach is to rely on the classical view, i.
For example, "by not encouraging and reassuring" the patient p. But is it really necessary to resort to the classical stance, based on the concept of a blank screen, if we want to define the identity of psychoanalysis? After all, this traditional view of technique has been put into question by several authors. Most notably and authoritatively, Gill has argued that the influence of the analyst onto the patient occurs anyway, and probably more so, if we believe in neutrality: our manipulation of the transference will go even more unnoticed, and for this reason the transference will run the risk of remaining unanalysed, to the point that a "classical" psychoanalysis might resemble a supportive or manipulative psychotherapy, despite the analyst's good intentions Migone, , There is no way to see a pure and "uncontaminated" transference Gill, , p.
Milton seems well aware of that, in fact she aptly quotes Ryle's metaphor of the transference as an "hardy plant" that always grows, regardless of our attempt to control it. In every environment, this plant will grow in its own interesting and peculiar way, showing us its many potentials. For example, following Gill's ideas, a transference that appears in a cognitive-behaviour therapy may be no less interesting or important than the "classical" transference i.
But we may well ask: how can we best let this plant grow, in order to know it better and to modify it? I am well aware that the issue here is quite complex, possibly involving philosophical aspects. Milton tells us that she adheres to a "traditional positivistic" rather than "intersubjective constructivist" paradigm p. It is not possible here to discuss this problem in detail.
I will simply recall that, according to Gill, a better technique would be to de-emphasise concepts such as neutrality, abstinence, blank screen, transference as a distortion of the past, etc.
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Proceeding in this way, according to Gill, we have better chances to avoid falling into a sort of blinding neutrality and we possibly see more of the patient's inner world--the same inner world that a traditional analyst aims at discovering.
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