Other universities offering open education are prestigious private universities such as Stanford , Princeton , Duke , Johns Hopkins , the University of Pennylvania , and Caltech , as well as notable public universities including Tsinghua , Peking , Edinburgh , University of Michigan , and University of Virginia.
Open education has been called the biggest change in the way people learn since the printing press. Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials. The conventional merit-system degree is currently not as common in open education as it is in campus universities, although some open universities do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom. Presently, many of the major open education sources offer their own form of certificate.
Due to the popularity of open education, these new kind of academic certificates are gaining more respect and equal " academic value " to traditional degrees. Out of colleges surveyed in nearly half said tuition for online courses was higher than for campus-based ones. A recent meta-analysis found that online and blended educational approaches had better outcomes than methods that used solely face-to-face interaction. The education sector or education system is a group of institutions ministries of education, local educational authorities, teacher training institutions, schools, universities, etc.
It involves a wide range of people curriculum developers, inspectors, school principals, teachers, school nurses, students, etc. These institutions can vary according to different contexts. Schools deliver education, with support from the rest of the education system through various elements such as education policies and guidelines — to which school policies can refer — curricula and learning materials, as well as pre- and in-service teacher training programmes.
The school environment — both physical infrastructures and psychological school climate — is also guided by school policies that should ensure the well-being of students when they are in school. They must also seek feedback from students for quality-assurance and improvement. Governments should limit themselves to monitoring student proficiency. The education sector is fully integrated into society, through interactions with numerous stakeholders and other sectors. These include parents, local communities, religious leaders, NGOs, stakeholders involved in health, child protection , justice and law enforcement police , media and political leadership.
Chimombo pointed out education's role as a policy instrument, capable of instilling social change and economic advancement in developing countries by giving communities the opportunity to take control of their destinies. Since , the ratio of children in the developing world attending school has increased. Before then, a small minority of boys attended school. By the start of the 21st century, the majority of all children in most regions of the world attended school.
Universal Primary Education is one of the eight international Millennium Development Goals , towards which progress has been made in the past decade, though barriers still remain. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have indicated that the main obstacles to funding for education include conflicting donor priorities, an immature aid architecture, and a lack of evidence and advocacy for the issue.
Indigenous governments are reluctant to take on the ongoing costs involved. There is also economic pressure from some parents, who prefer their children to earn money in the short term rather than work towards the long-term benefits of education. A study conducted by the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning indicates that stronger capacities in educational planning and management may have an important spill-over effect on the system as a whole.
Nearly every country now has universal primary education. Similarities — in systems or even in ideas — that schools share internationally have led to an increase in international student exchanges. The Soros Foundation  provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Programs such as the International Baccalaureate have contributed to the internationalization of education. The global campus online, led by American universities, allows free access to class materials and lecture files recorded during the actual classes. The Programme for International Student Assessment and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement objectively monitor and compare the proficiency of students from a wide range of different nations.
The internationalization of education is sometimes equated by critics with the westernization of education. These critics say that the internationalization of education leads to the erosion of local education systems and indigenous values and norms, which are replaced with Western systems and cultural and ideological values and orientation. Technology plays an increasingly significant role in improving access to education for people living in impoverished areas and developing countries.
However, lack of technological advancement is still causing barriers with regards to quality and access to education in developing countries. The laptops were widely available as of They are sold at cost or given away based on donations. In Africa, the New Partnership for Africa's Development NEPAD has launched an " e-school program " to provide all , primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years.
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India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students. In , the Indian Space Research Organisation launched EDUSAT , a communications satellite providing access to educational materials that can reach more of the country's population at a greatly reduced cost. The report examined the main challenges encountered by development organizations which support LCPSs. This success is attributed to excess demand. These surveys found concern for:. The report showed some cases of successful voucher and subsidy programs; evaluations of international support to the sector are not widespread.
Emerging approaches stress the importance of understanding the political economy of the market for LCPS, specifically how relationships of power and accountability between users, government, and private providers can produce better education outcomes for the poor. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists , whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities.
Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology , bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology, in turn, informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design , educational technology , curriculum development, organizational learning , special education and classroom management.
Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences.
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Intelligence is an important factor in how the individual responds to education. Those who have higher intelligence tend to perform better at school and go on to higher levels of education. There has been much interest in learning modalities and styles over the last two decades. The most commonly employed learning modalities are: . Other commonly employed modalities include musical , interpersonal , verbal , logical , and intrapersonal.
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Dunn and Dunn  focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli  recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner  identified a wide range of modalities in his Multiple Intelligences theories. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter , based on the works of Jung ,  focus on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment.
Some theories propose that all individuals benefit from a variety of learning modalities, while others suggest that individuals may have preferred learning styles, learning more easily through visual or kinesthetic experiences. Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience , developmental cognitive neuroscience , educational psychology , educational technology , education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education.
Several academic institutions around the world are beginning to devote resources to the establishment of educational neuroscience research.
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As an academic field, philosophy of education is "the philosophical study of education and its problems That is, it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline. There is no broad consensus as to what education's chief aim or aims are or should be. Different places, and at different times, have used educational systems for different purposes.
The Prussian education system in the 19th century, for example, wanted to turn boys and girls into adults who would serve the state's political goals.
Some authors stress its value to the individual, emphasizing its potential for positively influencing students' personal development, promoting autonomy, forming a cultural identity or establishing a career or occupation. Other authors emphasize education's contributions to societal purposes, including good citizenship, shaping students into productive members of society, thereby promoting society's general economic development, and preserving cultural values.
The purpose of education in a given time and place affects who is taught, what is taught, and how the education system behaves.
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For example, in the 21st century, many countries treat education as a positional good. In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course , referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university — or via some other such method.
Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences , mathematics , computer science , social sciences , humanities and applied sciences. Instruction is the facilitation of another's learning. Instructors in primary and secondary institutions are often called teachers , and they direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects like reading , writing , mathematics , science and history.
Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be called teachers , instructors, or professors , depending on the type of institution; and they primarily teach only their specific discipline. Studies [ which? It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation. Therefore, a country's ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of " human capital ".
Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions  and the role of cognitive skills. At the level of the individual, there is a large literature, generally related to the work of Jacob Mincer ,  on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital.
Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development
This work has motivated many studies, but is also controversial. The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling.
Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis argued in that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production.
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